A degree in Architecture and Urbanism can appear to be easy. But only the students of this course know the difficulty and the challenges encountered on the skin and the day-to-day, which is often frightening.
An essay should identify the relevant topics to include, be clear, precise and accurate. Logical order is used, in which we try to keep the main point throughout the text and indicating the relevance of what is being described.
It is very important to try to relate the topic with what you think are the expectations of the reader about how the essay in question is intended, choose the main points to be established in the essay, these should be the most relevant and intimately related between the topic or sub-themes. You can write some notes that help you relate and build arguments between the subtopics and important points.
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An exhaustive analysis of the subject before starting to write will help you to focus as best as possible the subject that is to be exposed, so you can carry out a much deeper investigation of the ideas you are looking for.
It is important to seek during the research important points that support to form concrete and valid arguments during the elaboration of the essay, such as reliable statistics about the subject, valid scientific opinions, objective descriptions coming from experts, theoretical foundations based on investigations, etc.
Selection of Literature
Try to constantly ask yourself about what you need to try, describe or develop in each of the points, this will help you find the most important questions and answers in your mind, so your reading will have a greater focus.
You can begin to read and collect your references, then last about 10-15 minutes investigating each one of them; review the summaries, diagrams, tables, conclusions, and introductions of the information consulted and decide which of these are the most useful to perform your essay, give priority to these for your reading. Read the subject in mind and discard material until you find the most relevant information, which you should read more deeply, that is, do not spend time reading irrelevant material.
When the time comes that you no longer find any useful information, you should stop reading and spend time mainly writing.
Writing a draft can also help you have better control over your ideas and foundations within the essay.
You can try to write notes and go structuring them until they become complete sentences, make sure that you have only one idea for each paragraph, the sentences should have the objective of relating to this idea, use this foundation to write examples of sentences that can help you to sustain your ideas.
It will happen that you have to perform different versions of your essay drafts until you reach the final version, try to organize your time to leave your essay two days before rewriting a draft, this is a good way to find inconsistencies easily.
Construction of a Paragraph
In an essay, a paragraph describes the idea in detail that is the foundation of the essay’s thesis. Each paragraph in the body of the text should include three elements: topical sentence, fundamental details and concluding the sentence. The purpose and focus of the paragraph are what determines its breadth, but most paragraphs must contain at least two complete sentences.
- Topical prayer: sentence The main idea of each paragraph is included in the topic sentence and must show how the idea relates to the general thesis of the essay. Generally, the topical sentence is placed at the beginning of each paragraph, but the location may vary depending on the individual organization and the expectation of the reader. Sometimes topical sentences function as transitions between paragraphs.
- Fundamental details: The foundation is elaborated from the topical elaboration and the thesis. The fundamental details must be obtained from a series of sources determined by the purpose of the essay and the genre. Here the essayist’s analysis should also be included.
- Concluding sentence: Each paragraph must end with a conclusion that gathers all the ideas and complements them with the whole paragraph, sometimes it can serve us as a transition to the next paragraph.
The basis of the construction of the paragraphs, and of the essay in general, is unity and coherence. The coherence means that each of the points must be linked to the previous points and those that follow to help facilitate the flow of information and logical progress and understandable. A simple way to integrate paragraphs into transitions in each topic sentence. Unity is the continuity between the individual ideas of the thesis during the essay. Each detail and example must develop logically and refer to the original focus of the topic.
It is necessary to present a clear and understandable argument for the essay, if you organize the ideas in a structured and orderly way this will help to present the argument very clearly. If the main purpose of an essay is to try to convince the reader about your position in the subject, the best thing that can be done is to facilitate the follow-up of the argument as much as possible.
It seems to be simple to follow the structure of three parts in the essay (introduction, development, and conclusion), however, it is necessary to be very clear about what each of these elements means and what should be written in each of these sections.
In the introduction, there are about 10% of the total words in the essay. It may sound redundant, however, this is where the topic is introduced, this is the particular aspect of this phase and what you should focus on to correctly argue the essay. By the end of the introduction, the reader must be able to predict what types of points will be taken in the trial. The reader must also be able to see clearly what is going to be argued, the questions and the way forward.
The three essential elements of the introduction are the general statement, the thesis statement and the general idea.
1. General statement: it is usually the first sentence and is used to make it easier for the reader to think about the topic. You have been researching the subject for a long time, but for the reader, it could be your first time. Because of this, it is important to help the reader to get oriented on a particular topic and how it relates to the world.
2. Thesis statement: this is the statement of the argument, here it is necessary to be more specific than in the general statement and the focus of the essay will be addressed. Out of all the aspects of the subject that you can write about, this part is where you will take the aspects that you will consider the subject.
3. General idea: here the reader is given a review of the points you will use to create your position according to the argument. It can help you to write them in the same order in which they will appear in the body of your essay, in this way you will avoid the confusion of seeing the points out of order.
You can see these elements as a filter or a bottleneck, in which you write from the general to the specific and the last element (general idea) gives us a platform to launch into the body of the essay.
In development, there are about 80% of the total words in the essay. Here each of the points of the argument is presented each in a paragraph (or set of paragraphs, in case it is a very long point). Each paragraph should start with a sentence pointing out to the reader the point that will be discussed during that paragraph. This is called a topical sentence.
It is good to try to relate the points to the general argument in your topical sentence. If you have made a good introduction, then the reader will be able to see the topical sentence of each paragraph and instantly relate it to the points indicated in the introduction. It is advisable to present the points in your essay in the same order as they were presented in the general idea section in the introduction.
After the topical sentence, the paragraph should have one or two more sentences explaining the point in more detail, and at least one piece of evidence substantiating this point. The evidence can be a reference from school sources to research data.
The basic structure of each paragraph is described as follows:
1. Topical sentence: Enter the main point of the paragraph, linking it with the main theme of the argument in general.
2. Explanation and elaboration: It bases the clearly explained point, referencing concepts of the study area. If it is necessary to define important terms, here is the point to do so.
3. Evidence: Base the point using relevant examples from research to academic literature
4. Concluding sentence (optional): You end the point using a very brief summary of the statement.
About 10% of the total words in the essay.
Once all the points have been covered in their own paragraph, you must conclude the essay by summarizing or summarizing all the points that have been exposed, reinforcing the general argument. It is not necessary to add new information at this point, and in general you should not make more citations or references, it is only a summary of the content of the essay.
The content of the conclusion will be similar to that of the introduction, but it has a very different purpose. Instead of introducing the reader with the argument, in this section you will have the last opportunity to make a persuasive speech, synthesizing all the previous points and arguments, replicate in a summarized way what has been exposed, and why is valid what is has exposed. However, this does not mean that the conclusion is a written introduction again.
When the reader reaches the conclusion, it must be very clear that this is the end of the argument. You can remind them of all the good points that have been exposed during the trial and what was the general argument. You will not find any new information that might make you think that another paragraph can begin.
List of References
Because we have to refer the sources we use to substantiate all points within our argument, we have to provide the reader with a complete list of references that includes all the sources from which we extracted information used to support the trial.
The list of references is usually organized in alphabetical order and using the required form in your academic center. For example, APA format. You can consult the guide ” How to reference APA standards ” if you would like more information about this topic.
HOW TO MAKE A CRITICAL AND ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO THE SUBJECT
- Being analytical is about separating or breaking things (such as situations, practices, problems, paradigms, ideas, theories, arguments) to their essential parts.
- Being critical is about not accepting things in the first instance, but evaluating everything from a valid, objective, relevant, useful and effective judgment.
The argumentative and evaluative view styles to which we refer earlier reflect these analytical and critical positions. It shows that we are using critical/analytical thinking when we ask many questions about everything we read, observe, listen to, experience and do, to look for reasons, explanations and reasons. Being skeptical and questioning the validity and objectivity of the whole empirical world, and of our thoughts, is what helps us to carry out a better essay, which is oriented towards seeking the objective truth of the abstract reality that comes from the subject itself.